Zakaat is obligatory on someone who is:
In possession of wealth above the Nisaab threshold: The person should possess wealth above a defined amount required to satisfy the essential needs of themselves and their dependents.
In possession of the wealth for one complete lunar (Hijrah) year: If one owns zakatable wealth for a lunar year, Zakaat will become obligatory, provided the total amount of wealth exceeds the Nisaab at the beginning of the year and the end, irrespective of any fluctuations in the months between.
A free man or woman: A slave does not have to pay Zakaat.
To be sane: An insane person is still liable for Zakaat if his/her wealth reaches Nisaab.
Being an adult: Being an adult is not the condition to make Zakaat obligatory. The guardians must pay Zakaat, if the child own’s enough wealth to make Zakaat obligatory.
In complete ownership and control of their wealth: The person must own and be in possession of the wealth, and also be free to spend or dispose of the wealth in any manner they like.
Debt: Someone in debt may deduct his debts from his assets, if what remains is still above the Nisaab threshold, Zakaat is due, otherwise not.
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