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There are numerous verses in the Qur’an that reference scientific phenomena, including discussions of astronomy, geography, biology, and other aspects of nature and the universe. The Qur’an includes, for instance, a detailed description of the different stages that the embryo goes through in the womb, as well as descriptions of the creation of the earth and of the interaction between fresh and salt water.

These repeated Qur’anic references to nature and injunctions to seek knowledge helped create a fertile environment for science during the “Golden Age of Islam” in the Middle Ages, when Muslims were at the forefront of such fields as mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, and medicine. Unfortunately, the economic and political decline of the Muslim world in later centuries brought about a decline in scientific and technological endeavor until recent decades.

Today, many Muslim Americans and Muslims worldwide work in science-based professions such as medicine, dentistry, and various fields of engineering, and many are leaders in their fields. In the United States, two of the most popular professions of Muslims are medicine and engineering.

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